Thursday, January 20, 2011

Image Technology Update

Image Technology Update

Image Technology Update

Image Technology Update

Image Technology Update

Image Technology Update

Image Technology Update

Image Technology Update

Image Technology Update

Image Technology Update

Image Technology Update

Sunday, January 16, 2011


DBMS (DataBase Management System) system was specifically designed to facilitate users in managing databases. This system was designed to overcome weaknesses berkas.Pada processing systems based approach to file-based, general system design based on the needs of individual users, not based on the needs of users. Every time there are new demands from a user, needs immediately translated into computer programs. As a result, most likely any application program to write its own data. While it is possible that the same data are also contained in other files used by other application programs.

Computer networks (LAN / Local Area Network)

computer network is a collection of computers, printers and other equipment are connected in one unit. Information and data moving through wires or wireless computer network allowing users to exchange documents and data, print on the printer the same and together using hardware / software is connected to the network.

Network Benefits:

* Resource Sharing, can use existing resources together. Suppose a user is located 100 km away from the data, do not get the difficulty in using these data, as if the data are close by. This often means that the computer network mangatasi distance problem.

* High Reliability, with the computer network we will get a high reliability by having alternative sources of supply. For example, all files can be saved or copied to two, three, or more computers that are connected kejaringan. So if one machine breaks, then copy on another machine that can be used.

* Saves money. Computer small berukutan have price / performance ratio better than the large computer. Such as mainframe computers have kecapatan approximately ten times the speed of a small computer / personal. However, the price of mainframes a thousand times more expensive than a personal computer. The imbalance of the ratio of price / performance and speed of this is to make the system designers to build systems that consist of personal computers.

The steps are: To create a small computer network (LAN), there are some equipment and materials we need, such as:

* Tang Cramping
* Lan Tester
* UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) / Coaxial (seldom used)
* RJ45 Connector / coaxial cable connector
* Switch-hubs
* Min 2 pieces of a PC (Personal Computer) and the LAN card or NIC (network Interface Card)
Then we specify the composition of UTP cable that will be used in accordance with its function. suppose if we want to connect a PC directly from the PC-CROSS then we use when connecting to a switch kia first-hub, PC-HUB, STRAIGHT then we use. if we want to link two LANs, the HUB-HUB CROSS we use, we also can use one staright if there HUB port uplink.
for ease in memorizing the cable arrangement, we can use one of the ways that I use, namely STRAIGHT -> OBHC if CROSS -> HBOC.


O -> white-orange - Orange
B -> white green - blue
H -> blue white - green
C -> white chocolate - brown


H -> green white - green
B -> white-orange - blue
O -> blue white - orange C -> white chocolate - chocolate

if you have another way please apply, do not be like above. then please each end tested using lan tester. if the light is as expected, then you have succeeded in the process of cramping. please lan card installed in your PC.

to set the IP then we think about is how no IP group that is used on your lan. usually to a local network using the IP group 172.17.XX, 192.168.xx or 10.10.XX 202.168.XX to the local network, the minimal set is:

IP address: (example)
Subnet mask: (example)

for the default gateway can be filled if you want your local networks connecting with the outside network (either other local networks or the Internet.) for the DNS server will you fill if you are connected to the Internet. DNS servers are subject to the rules established by the provider, Telkom Speedy, etc..

if you've set the IP number, you can check whether your computer can communicate with other computers, that is by running the ping command in the command, such as ping (This command produces 4 times the responses), to continually provide our response add attribute-t (trace), such as ping-t

Response provided there are 3 kinds 1. reply from .... Your computer has to communicate with your destination computer.

2. request time out .... network connection there is a problem with your destination computer.

3. destination unreachable .... your computer's network connection problems.

Worm Network Tester

Similar to the smallpox vaccine made from benign virus, computer worm known damaging it can be used to do something useful.
Thanassis Giannetsos the computer security experts from Greece presents interesting findings that can be used to perform testing against the security of a computer network.
Worm in the form of software called Sesys and designed specifically to test the network sensor module by performing malicious code injection. Sensys Originally created to collect the data via the network. Data - this data will be changed to be presented in graphical form. However, because of its ability to perform malicious packet injection, the Sensys better known as a good worm.
Despite the malicious code can spread in the network, Sensys totally harmless. Who managed to spread malicious code in a network will not damage and retrieve essential information. Conversely, Sensys will form a detailed report related to the weaknesses found in the network points.
In the near Giannetsos plans to offer a free download application of this invention through his personal website at

History Website

A web site (often shortened to just site; web site, site) is the designation for a group of web pages (web page), which generally is part of a domain name (domain name) or subdomain on the World Wide Web (WWW) on Internet . WWW consists of all the websites available to the public. The pages of a web site accessed from a URL which is the "root" (root), called the homepage (main page; often translated as "porch", "home page"), and is usually stored in the same server. Not all websites can be accessed for free. Some websites require a payment to become a customer, such as sites that feature pornography, news websites, electronic mail services (e-mail), and others.
In terminology, the website is a collection of web pages, which are usually summarized in a domain or subdomain, which it is located on the World Wide Web (WWW) on the Internet. A web page is a document written in HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language), which is almost always accessible via HTTP, the protocols that convey information from the website server for display to the user via a web browser. All publicly accessible websites are to form a huge information network.

The pages of the website will be accessible via a URL which is called Homepages. This URL regulate web pages into a hierarchy, although the hyperlinks in the page set up the readers and let them sususan whole and how this information flow going.

Some websites require a subscription (data input) so that users can access some or all of their content. For example, there are few business sites, these sites free e-mail, which requires subkripsi so that we could access the site.

The inventor of the website is Sir Timothy John ¨ ¨ Tim Berners-Lee, while the website which is connected to the network, first appeared in 1991. The purpose of the teams when creating a website is to facilitate the exchange and update information to fellow researchers at the place he works. On 30 April 1993, CERN (the place where team work) informed that the WWW can be used free of charge by everyone.

A website could be the work of the individual or individuals, or show ownership of an organization, company, and usually a website that shows some specific topics, or particular interests. A website can contain hyperlinks (links) that connects to another website, so, sometimes the difference between individual websites created by individuals with websites created by business organizations can be blurred.

Website written, or are dynamically converted to HTML and accessed through a software program called a web browser, also known as an HTTP Client. Web pages can be viewed or accessed via a computer network and Internet enabled devices may be personal computers, laptops, PDAs or cell phones.

A website created in a computer system known as a web server, also known as HTTP Server, and this sense can also refer to the software used to run this system, which then receives and sends the pages required to respond to requests from users. Apache is the software which is used in a webserver, then after that is the Microsoft Internet Information Services (IIS).

A static Web site, is one form of content within the website site is not intended to be updated periodically, and usually is maintained manually by a few people using the software editor. There are 3 types of categories editor software that was used for the purpose of maintaining it, they are:

1. Elements of a text editor. Examples are Notepad, or TextEdit, where the HTML is changed within the editor program.
2. Element 2 WYSIWYG editor. Such as Microsoft FrontPage and Macromedia Dreamweaver, where the site is edited using a GUI (Graphical User Interface) and HTML format is generated automatically by the editor.
3. Elements of three editors who already has a template, for example, RapidWeaver and iWeb, which, this editor allows users to create and update the website directly to the web server quickly, without having to know anything about HTML. They can choose a template in accordance with their wishes, add a picture or object, fill it with writing, and with a flash they had to make a web site without having to see any HTML code.

A dynamic website is a website that has frequently changing information or this website interacts with the user in various ways or methods (HTTP cookies or database variables, previous history, session variables etc.) can also by direct interaction form and movement of the mouse. When the Web server receives a request for a given page, the page will be automatically retrieved from storage in response to the demand requested by the user. A site can display an ongoing dialogue between users, monitor the changing situation, or provide information related to the user.

Systems There are many types of software that can be used to generate dynamic Web systems and dynamic sites, some of which are ColdFusion (, CFM), Active Server Pages (ASP), Java Server Pages (JSP) and PHP programming language that are available to generate dynamic Web systems and dynamic sites. Sites may also include include information taken from one or more databases or by using the XML-based technologies such as RSS. Static content may also be periodically generated, or, if there are circumstances in which he needs to be restored to its original state, then he will be generated, this is to avoid its performance in order to stay awake.

Plugins are available for expand the features and capabilities of web browsers, which plugin is used to open content which is usually a snapshot of a moving picture (active content) such as Flash, the Shockwave or applets written in JAVA language. Dynamic HTML also provides for the user so that he can be an interactive and real-time, updating the web page is (note: the page that change, no need is loaded or reloaded on to the changes can be seen), usually the changes made by them using the DOM and JavaScript are already available on all Web browsers today.

As noted above, out there exist some differences in the writing of website terminology. Although ¨ Website ¨ been generally used, but for the Associated Press Stylebook, Reuters, Microsoft, the Academia, and the existing dictionaries, writing that they use is to use two words, namely the Web site. This is because · Web terminilogi ¨ is not common, but short of the World Wide Web.

Ajax Features

AJAX as a new programming technique has several features. AJAX Privileges include:

Make requests to the server without reloading (reloads) the page.
Parse (parse) and work with XML documents and / or JSON.
The data is sent bit so save bandwidth and connection speed.
The process is done behind the scenes.
Many supported by modern browsers are popular.
Applications built more interactive and dynamic.

The use of AJAX will bring several benefits. These benefits, among others.

High Interactivity: AJAX applications are more interactive than conventional web applications.
High Usability: Update data not reload the whole page, but only the relevant.
High Speed: AJAX applications faster than with conventional web applications

Examples of AJAX User

Some commercial web is to use AJAX technology to increase service to the user. Here are several examples that use AJAX web.

Google Suggest:
Google Maps:
Yahoo! News:
Bitflux Blog:

Friday, January 14, 2011

Build IP TV (Internet Protocol Television)

Speaking IPTV (Internet Protocol Television) dah two years ago ... now Indonesia dah rame began preparations to move the TV analog to digital TV era by using technology IPTV (Internet Protocol Television). So Inget ama VOIP. But this might be a bit different, but bang Nasrul Try to describe a bit about digital IPTV although not the personnel, expertise Nasrul bang.
Well actually if just for one area such as a district we can build Digital IPTV station, how ya pake Networking Wide Area Network system by relying on WiFi technology, Well really easy way tuh.
In Digital's IPTV Station didaearah, there is a WIFI network, which obtained a clear IP is a LAN (Local Area Network) so yes rather kenceng was trasfer bitrate, can reach 1 Mbps, especially if use LAN systems using cable systems, can achieve 100 Mbps. Now kalu dah existing network, do stay deh IP mapping, IP Clear contained in our local Digita IPTV Station can be read by the network system we have. For example we use the IP on plate C so we assume that IPTV Station we build have IP
Requirements for IPTV Digital Station we are the encoder device Video / Audio, and Streaming Server device. The definition of Video and Audio Encoder Tool is for the source video and audio for broadcast TVnya, well usually on Video Camera that we use are usually present Jack AV namely to output Video and Audio. nah in this section is connected to the Video Card and Audio Card that we have on a PC computer that will be used as encoder engine. Brand Card Card Video and Audio can be your own with your pocket.
Ok, after the set, now you will make taking pictures and sound through a PC computer that is used as an encoder, and you just choose the encoder system that you use. Here Bang Nasrul give an example using Real Producer ver 11, so will the protocol used is the RTSP protocol.
Then you do the encoding using Real Producer Push Encoding with a choice of systems, from pc computer encoder you toward your Streaming Server. For example you mempush on the streaming server with IP, and give the path / live.rm. Selajunya is a streaming server, you can use the Helix Server Unlimited is licensenya 30 Days, please install both under Linux and Microsoft Windows. Do I install it deh search on the Internet. Ok After you've installed and streaming server settings, then push the system from your PC you can berjlan encoding properly.
Well made watch IPTV is, in our LAN network can access it using Real Player, then enter the URL address is rtsp: / / ... so nah deh digital IPTV, well, if there is IPTV Set Top Box better tuh ... so can directly watch on TV, not computer again ....
How yah Set Top Box IPTV .... IPTV STB that .... surely it is Linux root wah ... he he he he
Well now bang Nasrul have an idea ... of Post ngebangun IPTV Digital, now bang Nasrul Want to make IPTV Set Top Box with Linux base, just a pity bang Nasrul Gak Punya Cost ... anyone want to help?
Ok picture IPTV STB that was built the same linux bang Nasrul actually very simple, that is actually changing the pc computer so the IPTV STB, which clearly only accept applications from streaming video streaming server which then output to a TV, no longer to the Display / Monitor VGA LCD or Computer. The contents of the STB of course there is the Linux Kernel, To read the Hardware LAN Card, Sound Card and Video Card (AV). Now there is an application that contains only Gui Browser and Media Player.
Well to IP mendapatkankan course with the DHCP server, so do not bother setting the ip address, can never in layat been hosting the TV that comes out is a browser that contains a link or button for streaming url address. Now when the URL is clicked or pressed terebut via remote control, automatically which is called Media Player that matches the protocol used and the Codex. IPTV STB's


PCs are designed based on generations of different CPUs. Intel is not the only company that makes the CPU, although that became a pioneer among others. In every generation that dominates the Intel chips, but the fifth generation there are few options other than Intel chips.

GENERATION 1 (Processor 8088 and 8086)

Processor 8086 (1978) is the first Intel 16 bit CPU that uses 16-bit system bus. But the 16-bit hardware like the motherboard when it's too expensive, where 8-bit microcomputer is standard. In 1979 Intel CPU redesigned to fit the 8-bit hardware is there. The first PC (1981) has this 8088 CPU. 8088 is a 16 bit CPU, but only internally. External data bus width is only 8 bits that give kompatibelan with existing hardware.

Indeed 8088 is a CPU 16 / 8 bits. Logically this processor can be named 8086SX. 8086 is the first CPU that is really 16 bits in this family.

80 286 GENERATION 2 processor

286 (1982) is also a 16 bit processor. This processor has a relatively big progress compared to the first generation chips. Clock frequency is increased, but the main improvement is to optimize the handling of orders. 286 produces more work per clock tick than 8088/8086. In the initial speed (6 MHz) demonstrating work four times better than 8086 at 4.77 MHz. Recently introduced with the clock speed of 8.10, and 12 MHz are used in IBM PC-AT (1984). Renewal of the others is the ability to work in protected mode / modes of protection - a new working mode with a "24-bit virtual address mode" / 24-bit virtual addressing mode, which confirms the shift from DOS to Windows and multitasking. But you can not switch from protected mode back to real / real mode without booting their PCs and operating systems that use this only OS / 2 the time.

GENERATION 3 80 386 DX Processor

386 was launched October 17, 1985. 80 386 is a 32 bit CPU first. From the point of view of traditional DOS PC, not a revolution. 286 great works as soon as the first 386SX-32 bit mode while applying. This processor can put address up to 4 GB of memory and has a way of addressing that is better than 286. 386 work at a clock speed of 16.20, and 33 MHz. Later Cyrix and AMD make clones / imitations are working at 40 MHz. 386 introduced a new working mode in addition to real and protected mode on 286. The new mode called virtual 8086 is open for multitasking because the CPU can create multiple virtual 8086 in each memory location individually. 80 386 is the first CPU with a good job demonstrating early versions of Windows.

Processor 80386SX

This chip is a chip that did not complete the most famous of the 386DX. This processor has only a 16-bit external data bus is different from the 32 bit DX. Also, the SX has only 24 address lines. Therefore, this processor can only put address a maximum of 16 MB RAM. This processor is not the real 386, but a cheaper motherboard makes it very popular.

GENERATION 4 80 486 DX Processor

80 486 issued 10 April 1989 and works two times faster than its predecessor. This can happen because of the handling of x86 commands a faster, more-more in RISC mode. At the same time the bus speed was increased, but the 386DX and 486DX are 32 bit chips. Something new in the 486 is to make a math coprocessor / mathematical auxiliary processor.

Previously, the math co-processor chip to be installed is a separate 387, 486 also has 8 KB of L1 cache.

80 486 SX Processor

This is a new processor chip that is not complete. Math co-processor is removed compared to 486DX.

Processor Cyrix 486SLC

Cyrix and Texas Instruments have made a series of 486SLC chips. Chip-chip using the same set of commands such as 486DX, and worked internally 32 bit like DX. Externally but works only on 16 bit (like a 386SX). Therefore, the chips can only handle 16 MB RAM. Moreover, only has 1 KB of internal cache and no mathematical co-processor. Indeed these chips are only 286/386SX improvement. Chip-chip is not a clone chips. These chips have a fundamental difference in architecture when compared to Intel chips.

IBM Processor 486SLC2

IBM has made its own 486 chip. A series of chip was named SLC2 and SLC3. The latter is known as Blue Lightning. These chips can be compared with Intel's 486SX, because they do not have a mathematical coprocessor into one. But it has 16 KB internal cache (compared to Intel which has 8 KB). Which reduces its performance is from the chip bus interface 386. SLC2 worked at 25/50 MHz externally and internally, while the chip SLC3 work on 25/75 and 33/100 MHz. IBM makes chips for their own PCs with their own facilities, melesensi logiknya from Intel.

Development of 486 Next

DX4, DX4 processor Intel-processor represents an increase of 80,486. Tripled its speed from 25 to 75 MHz and from 33 to 100 MHz. Another DX4 chip is accelerated up to from 25 to 83 MHz. DX4 has 16 KB internal cache and works at 3.3 volts. DX and DX2 have only 8 KB cache and require 5 volt with inherent heat problems.

Table CPU and FPU


8086 8087

80286 80287

80386 80387

80486DX Built in / in

80486SX None

Inside the Pentium and thereafter

GENERATION 5 Pentium Classic (P54C)

The chip was developed by Intel and released on March 22, 1993. Pentium is a super scalar processor, which means that this processor can run more than one command per clock tick. This processor handles two commands every tick, comparable with two 486 in a single chip. There are big changes in the bus system: double width to 64 bits and its speed increased to 60 or 66 MHz. Since then, Intel Pentium produces two kinds of working at 60 MHz system bus (P90, P120, P150, and P180) and the rest, working at 66 MHz (P100, P133, P166, and P200).

Cyrix 6 × 86

Cyrix chips from the company that introduced February 5, 1996 This is a cheap imitation Pentium. This chip is compatible with the Pentium, because it fits with the Socket 7. Cyrix CPU-CPUnya market by comparing the clock frequency of Intel. Cyrix 6 × 86 is known with poor performance on floating pointnya. Cyrix has a problem when running NT 4.0.

AMD (Advanced Micro Devices)

AMD Pentium Pentium-like chips offered by Intel to compete with strictly. AMD uses their own technologies. Therefore, the processor is not a clone-clone. AMD has a series as follows: - K5, can be equated with the Pentium, Pentium Classic (with 16 KB L1 cache and without MMX).

- K6, K6-2, and K6-3 to compete with Pentium MMX and Pentium II.

- K7 Athlon, August 1999, is not compatible with Socket 7.


K5 is a Pentium clone. K5 long as the samples sold as PR133 (Perform rating.) That is, demonstrating that the chip would work like a Pentium P133. However, only runs 100 MHz internally. The chip can still be installed on the motherboard like a P133. AMD K5 PR166 also there. This chip is intended to compete with Intel's P166. Works only on 116.6 MHz (1.75 x 66 MHz) internally. This is due to an optimized cache and other new developments. There's only feature that does not comply with the P166 is in floating-point work. PR133 and PR166 worth far less expensive than a comparable Pentium type, and the processor is very well known on the machines at low prices.

Pentium MMX (P55C)

Pentium, Pentium P55C was introduced January 8, 1997. MMX is a collection of new orders (57 new integer, 4 new data types and 8 64-bit registers), which extends the capabilities of these CPUs. MMX's commands are designed for multimedia programs. Programmers can use these commandments in its programs. This will provide improvements in running the program.

IDT Winchip

IDT is a smaller company that produces such as the Pentium MMX CPU at a low price. IDT C6 WinChip first introduced in May 1997.


AMD K6 was launched 2 April 1997. This chip is demonstrating working a little better than the Pentium MMX. Therefore, included in the P6 family.

· Equipped with 32 +32 KB L1 cache and MMX.

· Contains 8.8 million transistors.

K5 K6 as well as compatible with the Pentium. Thus, it can be placed on the Socket 7, the general Pentium motherboards, and it soon became very famous for making K6.

Cyrix 6x86MX (MII)

Cyrix also has a chip with high performance, are among the generation of the 5th and 6th. The first type is seated against the Pentium MMX chip from Intel. The next type can be compared with the K6. A powerful group of P6 processor from Cyrix announced as "M2". Introduced on May 30, 1997 his name became 6x86MX. Then given the name of MII. 6x86MX chip is compatible with MMX Pnetium and paired normal on Socket 7 motherboards, 6x86MX has 64 KB internal L1 cache. Cyrix also utilizing technology not found in the Pentium MMX.

6X86MX specifically compared with the 6 th generation CPU other (Pentium II and Pro and K6) since it does not work based on RISC kernel. 6X86MX run the original CISC instructions, such as the Pentium MMX.

6X86MX have - like all Dary processor Cyrix - a problem related to the FPU unit. However, if only used for standard applications, this is not a problem. Problems will arise if the play 3D games. 6x86MX chip is quite powerful. But these chips have no FPU and MMX are demonstrating good work. These chips do not include technology, 3DNow!

Internal and External speed 6x86MX

Speed Speed 6x8MX internal external

PR166 150 MHz 60 MHz

PR200 166 MHz 66 MHz

PR233 188 MHz 75 MHz

PR266 225 MHz 75 MHz

PR300 233 MHz 66 MHz

PR333 255 MHz 83 MHz

PR433 285 MHz 95 MHz

PR466 333 MHz 95 MHz

Two types of 6X86MX and MII, on 14 April 1998 version of the Cyrix MII launched. This chip is actually the same chip with 6x86MX only works on a higher clock frequency. Furthermore, the voltage reduced to 2.2 volts.

AMD K6-2

Version of the "model 8" K6 next has a code name "Chomper". This processor on May 28, 1998 is marketed as a K6-2, and the like versions of the original K6 model 7, made with 0:25 micron technology. These chips work only with a 2.2 voltage. This chip became the rival of Intel's Pentium II.

K6-2 is made for the front-side bus (bus system) at a speed of 100 MHz and Super 7 motherboard. AMD to make other companies such as Via and Alladin, create a new chip set for traditional Socket 7 motherboard, after Intel knew in 1997 to stop the platform.

K6-2 also improved the performance of MMX is two times better than the initial K6. K6-2 has a new 3D plug-ins (called 3DNow!) For the performance of the game better. Consisting of 21 new instructions that can be used by software developers to provide 3D performance is better.

Support is included in DirectX 6.0 for Windows. DirectX is the multimedia API, to Windows. DirectX is a program that can improve multimedia performance in all Windows programs.

Multimedia 3DNow! not compatible with MMX, but MMX K6-2 has the best 3DNow!. Cyrix and IDT also launched a CPU with 3DNow!.

K6-2 give the performance is very, very good. You can compare this with the Pentium II processor. K6-2 350 MHz work demonstrating very similar to the Pentium II-350, but sold more cheaply. And to save more for a cheaper motherboard.

K6-2 With its Bus and Clock

K6-2 Bus Clock

266 MHz 66 MHz 4.0 x 66 MHz

266 MHz 88 MHz 3.0 x 88 MHz

300 MHz 100 MHz 3.0 x 100 MHz

333 MHz 95 MHz 3.5 x 95 MHz

350 MHz 100 MHz 3.5 x 100 MHz

380 MHz 95 MHz 4.0 x 95 MHz

400 MHz 100 MHz 4.0 x 100 MHz

GENERATION 6 Pentium Pro

Pentium Pro development started 1991, in Oregon. Introduced on 1 November, 1995. Pentium Pro is a pure RISC processor, optimized for 32 bit processing in Windows NT or OS / 2. The new feature is that the L2 cache into a single chip giant, with a rectangular chip and Socket-8nya. Unit CPU and L2 cache are separate units inside this chip.

Pentium II

Pentium Pro "Klamath" was the code name of Intel's top processor. This processor Pentium Pro to end the series there is a reduction in part and in part there is improvement.

Introduced May 7, 1997, the Pentium II has the features:

· CPU is put together with 512 KB L2 within a module SECC (Single Edge Contact Cartridge)

· Connect with motherboards using the link / connector slots one and P6 GTL + bus.

· MMX commands.

· Improvements to run 16 bit programs (fun for users of Windows 3.11)

· Doubling and improved L1 cache (16 KB + 16 KB).

· Internal speed increased from 233 MHz to 300 MHz (higher subsequent versions).

· L2 Cache CPU working at half speed.

Latest Computer Technology

Do you know what is inside your computer? Maybe you peeked when the service technician was installing something for you. When you first open up the CPU and look inside, a computer is a very threatening machine. But once you know about the different parts that make up a complete computer it gets a lot easier. Today's computers consist of around eight main components; some of the advanced computers might have a few more components. What are these eight main components and what are they used for? We will start with beginner level details to get you started.

First is the Power Supply. The power supply is used to provide electricity to all of the components in your computer. It is usually a rectangular box and is usually positioned in one of the corners of the computer. To find it for sure, look to see where the power cable plugs into the back of the computer and you have found the power supply. Most power supplies today are calculated in wattage and come in 50 watt increments (500 watt, 550, 600, etc

Second is the Motherboard. All of the components are connected into the motherboard; it doesn't mean that it is the brain of the computer. Yes it holds the brain and helps it act together with all the other components of the machine.

The third and a very important component of a computer is the CPU (Central Processing Unit), Known as the brain of the computer and nothing is going to happen without it. All major calculation performed by a computer are carried out inside its CPU. It is also responsible for activating and controlling the operations of other units of the system. The faster the CPU can do these calculations and give the correct answers, the faster the computer runs for the user. CPUs are now measured in gigahertz (Ghz) and they are at present up to our 3.8GHz or faster

A fourth component is the RAM (Random Access Memory). RAM is used as momentary working storage for the computer. We have different types of RAM memory with different speed, but it should match with your motherboard so that it can work properly. The more RAM you have in your computer, the better your computer will work.

The fifth component is the Hard drive. This is where you can store everything. Our material on the hard drive includes the operating system (Windows XP, etc), games, and different types of software, etc. over the year the capacity of the hard drive is continuously improving and in the interval of few years its capacity have gone from around 20MB to over 500GB and more. So you can store a lot more information on your computer such as games, pictures, videos, applications, and more.

Sixth component is Cooling fans. Often most computers come with one cooling fan or it might have several. Its help to cool down the heat generated by others components, Such as power supply, the CPU, and some high-end video cards. The work of all of your cooling fans is to get this heat out of the case so that nothing overheats and breaks. While most of the noise you hear coming from a computer can be credited to the cooling fans, remember to be tolerant. The cooling fan is your friend!

Our Seventh and final component is the mixture of several different devices. These are the Cd-rom, DVD drives, floppy Drive and Backup devices such as external hard drive.

Latest compute processor

Latest computer processor provides high speed processing, great performance, effortless multitasking and a dramatic increase in your productivity. Get the most out of it with a new PC. Today's desktops and notebooks offer greater performance, quality and reliability than ever before. These computers have 2X faster performance, less waiting, sleek designs and keep you productive, entertained and informed. New technology gives you the performance you need in the design you desire. Lets take a look on Next Generation processor.


Core i3
Core i5

Core i7

Technologyb2b introduce you with the latest buzz on new tech world. It is the right place to discover and shop tech stuff. The high tech stuff that we will cover here includes
Desktop, laptops, software and hardware products, HDTV, home theater, and gadgets like (PDAs, cell phones, digital cameras, ipod) and even tech books also. It is the place to find hottest software and hardware and coolest gadgets.

How VoIP Work

The interesting thing about VoIP is the many ways to make calls. Currently there are 3 different types of methods most often used to make VoIP layalan, namely:

-> ATA (Analog Telephone Adapter)
The most simple and most common is to use a device called the ATA. ATA allows us to connect a regular telephone to a computer or connected to the Internet to use VoIP. ATA is a device signal converter from analog to digital. The way it works is to change the analog signal from the phone and turn it into data
digital transmitted over the Internet. Providers like Vonage and AT & T ATA Callvantage making tool and give it for free to customers as part of their service. They stay open ATA, installing telephone cable into the device, and VoIP can be used. Several types of ATA packaged and bundled with additional software that must be installed on the computer to configure the ATA, but generally it was just a very easy setting.

-> IP Phones
This special telephone seemed the same as regular phone. But besides having the standard RJ-11 connectors, IP Phones also has an RJ-45. IP Phones connect directly from
phone to the router, and within the existing IP Phones all hardware and software that is installed inside the support to call IP. Soon, IP Phone
wireless (wireless) will be available, and allows users to make VoIP calls from hotspots that are available.

-> Computer-to-Computer
This method is clearly the easiest way to make VoIP calls. You even do not pay a penny to make long distance calls. There are several companies that offer low cost programs and even games that can be used to make VoIP calls. You must provide only the programs (software), microphone, speakers, soundcard and an internet connection, preferably a relatively fast Internet connection such as cable or DSL connection. In addition to monthly ISP fee, there is usually no longer charge for the call-to-Computer Computer, no matter how far away.

How The Wi-fi

Wi-Fi is short for Wireless Fidelity, which has the sense of a set of standards used for Wireless Local Networks (Wireless Local Area Networks - WLANs) based on IEEE 802.11 specification. The latest standards of specifications 802.11a or b, such as 802.16 g, is currently in preparation, the latest specification will offer many improvements ranging from more extensive coverage to the transfer speed.

Wi-Fi was originally intended for the use of wireless devices and Local Area Network (LAN), but now more widely used to access the Internet. This allows anyone with a computer with a wireless card (wireless card) or personal digital assistant (PDA) to connect to the internet using access point (or known as hotspots) nearby.

Wi-Fi was designed based on the IEEE 802.11 specification. Today there are four variations of 802.11, namely:

* 802.11a
* 802.11b
* 802.11g
* 802.11n

Specifications b is the first Wi-Fi products. The variation of g and n is one product that has the most sales in 2005.

In many parts of the world, the frequencies used by Wi-Fi, users are not required to obtain permission from local regulators (eg, Federal Communications Commission in the U.S.). 802.11a uses a higher frequency and therefore narrower jangkaunya power, others the same.

Wi-Fi version of the most extensive in the U.S. market today (based in IEEE 802.11b / g) operates at 2400 MHz to 2483.50 MHz. With so allows operation in 11 channels (each 5 MHz), centered on the following frequencies:

* Channel 1 to 2.412 MHz;
* Channel 2 to 2.417 MHz;
* Channel 3 to 2.422 MHz;
* Channel 4 to 2.427 MHz;
* Channel 5 to 2.432 MHz;
* Channel 6 to 2.437 MHz;
* Channel 7 to 2.442 MHz;
* Channel 8 to 2.447 MHz;
* Channel 9 to 2.452 MHz;
* Channel 10 to 2.457 MHz;
* Channel 11 to 2.462 MHz

Operational Technically, Wi-Fi is one variant of communications and information technology that works on the network and the WLAN (wireless local area network). In other words, the Wi-Fi is a certification trademark given to telecommunications equipment manufacturers (Internet) working in WLAN networks and interoperates capacity already meets the required quality.

Technology-based Wi-Fi internet created and developed a group of U.S. engineers who worked at the Institute of Electrical and Electronis Engineers (IEEE) technical standards-based numbered devices 802.11b, 802.11a and 802.16. Wi-Fi devices are not only able to work on WLAN networks, but also on network Wireless Metropolitan Area Network (WMAN).

Because the device with the technical standard 802.11b WLAN devices intended for use in the 2.4 GHz frequency or frequencies, commonly called ISM (Industrial, Scientific and Medical). As for the technical standards 802.11a and 802.16 WMAN or destined for the device is also called Wi-Max, who works in the vicinity of 5 GHz frequency band.

High public interest - particularly among the Internet community - using Wi-Fi technology because at least two factors. First, the ease of access. This means that users in one area can access the Internet simultaneously without having to be bothered with cables.

Consequently, users who want to do surfing or browsing news and information on the Internet, simply bring the PDA (pocket digital assistance) or Wi-Fi enabled laptop into a place where there is access point or hotspot.

The proliferation of hotspots in places such - which was built by the telecom operators, Internet service providers and even individual people - triggered the second factor, namely because construction costs are relatively cheap or only around 300 dollars U.S..

Increasing the quantity of Internet users based Wi-Fi technology is increasingly implicated in various parts of the world, has encouraged Internet service providers (ISPs) to build hotspots in major cities of the world.

Some observers have even predicted in 2006, there will be 800,000 hotspots in the countries of Europe, 530,000 in the United States and one million in countries in Asia.

The overall amount of income derived by the United States and European countries of technology-based Internet business Wi-Fi until the end of 2003 was estimated at 5.4 trillion U.S. dollars, an increase of 33 billion U.S. dollars from the year 2002 (

In Indonesia alone, the use of Internet-based Wi-Fi already implicated in several major cities. In Jakarta, for example, the maniacs who are surfing the Internet while waiting for the plane took off at the airport waiting room, was not an alien.

The same phenomenon seen in many cafes - like a Starbucks Cafe and La Moda Cafe in Plaza Indonesia, Senayan Coffee Club, and Cafe Coffee Bean in Cilandak Town Square - where the visitor can open the Internet to look at political news or gossip while sipping a cappuccino newest artist hot .

Today, business telephone-based VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) has also been using Wi-Fi technology, where calls are forwarded through the WLAN network. The application is named VoWi-FI (Voice over Wi-Fi).

Some time ago, the latest technical standards created by the IEEE has been able to support the operation of a streaming video service. Even the predictable, the future can be made cards (card)-based Wi-Fi technology that can be inserted into electronic equipment, ranging from digital cameras to video game consoles (ITU News 8 / 2003).

Based on the above explanation, it can be concluded that the quantity of business and technology, Wi-Fi users tend to increase, and economically it has a positive impact on the national economy of a country, including Indonesia.

Nevertheless, the government should address the phenomenon wisely and carefully. The reason is, technologically frequency bands - both 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz - which became operational container technology, Wi-Fi is not free of limitations (Kompas, 2/5/2004).

Because the users in a new area can take advantage of wireless Internet system is optimally, when all the devices used in the area using a uniform transmit power and limited.

If the preconditions are not honored, you can bet will happen is not only harmful interference between devices of Internet users, but also with other telecommunications systems devices.

If interference continues - because users want more superior than other users, and therefore lack of understanding of the limitations of the technology - in the end will make the path a frequency of 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz could not be used optimally.

Another limitation of this second wireless frequency bands (particularly 2.4 GHz) is due also used for ISM (industrial, science and medical).

Consequently, the use of radio communications or other telecommunication device that works in the frequency band it should be ready to accept interference from ISM devices, as stated in S5.150 of the Radio Regulations.

In the recommendation ITU-R SM.1056, also informed the device characteristics of the ISM which basically aims to prevent occurrence of interference, both between devices with the ISM as well as telecommunications equipment sharing.

The same recommendation affirms that every member of the ITU-free establish administrative requirements and rules of law relating to mandatory power restrictions.

Recognizing the limitations and the impact that may arise from the use of both of the wireless frequency bands, various countries and impose regulations that limit the transmission power of the devices used.

10 Steps to Securing Your Wireless Network

The wireless network or a wireless network is often referred to quite easy to set up, and also feels very comfortable, especially if we want to be able to walk way around the home or office with a portable computer but it can still access the Internet network. However, as wireless waves, it will be easier to hack than using a cable connection. There are a few tips here to secure the wireless network.

The step following steps:

1. Use encryption.
Encryption is the first security measure, but many wireless access points (WAPs) do not use encryption as a default. Although many WAP has Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) protocol, but not enabled by default. WEP does have some holes in securitynya, and an experienced hacker can definitely open it, but it was still better than no encryption at all. Be sure to set the WEP authentication method to "shared key" rather than "open system". To "open system", he does not encrypt data, but only authenticated client. Change the WEP key as often as possible, and use 128-bit WEP compared with a 40-bit.

2. Use strong encryption.
Because of the weakness of existing weaknesses in WEP, it is advisable to use Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) as well. To use WPA, WAP had to support. The client side must also be able to support WPA tsb.

3. Change the default administrator password.
Most manufacturers use the same administrative password for all their products WAP. Default passwords are generally already known by the hackers, which can later be used to change the settings on your WAP. The first thing to do in the configuration of a WAP is change the default password tsb. Use at least 8 characters, a combination of letters and numbers, and do not use the word word in the dictionary.

4. Turn off SSID Broadcasting.
Service Set Identifier (SSID) is the name of the wireless network. By default, the SSID of the WAP will be broadcast. This will make users easy to find the network they will be, because the SSID will appear in the list of available networks that exist in the wireless client. If the SSID is turned off, users must first know its a bit SSID can be connected to the network page.

5. Turn off the WAP when not in use.
The way this one seems very simple, but some companies or individuals do it. If we have users who only connect at certain times only, there is no reason to run a wireless network at all times and provide the opportunity for intruders to carry out his evil intentions. We can turn off access point when not in use.

6. Change the default SSID.
Factory provide a default SSID. Usefulness of the SSID broadcast is turned off to prevent anyone else know the name of our network, but if you still use the default SSID, will not be difficult to guess the SSID of our network.

7. Using MAC filtering.
Most WAP (not the cheap cheap of course) will allow us to use filter media access control (MAC). This means we can make a "white list" of computers that can access the computer wireless network, based on the MAC or physical address in each network card pc. Connections from the MAC is not in the list will be rejected.

This method is not always safe, because it is still possible for a hacker to do packet sniffing that we transmit via the wireless network and get a valid MAC address from one user, and then use it to make a spoof. But MAC filtering will make it increasingly difficult an intruder who is still not good at really good.

8. Isolate the wireless network from the LAN.
To protect the cable from the internal network threats coming from the wireless network, it would need to be made wireless DMZ or perimeter network is isolated from the LAN. It means installing a firewall between the wireless network and LAN. And for the wireless client that requires access to the internal network, he must first authenticate with the RAS server or use a VPN. This provides an extra layer for protection.

9. Control the wireless signal
802.11b WAP transmits waves of up to about 300 feet. But this distance can be added by replacing with a better antenna. By using high-gain antenna, we can get a longer distance. Directional antenna will transmit the signal to a particular direction, and emit are not circular as it happened in omnidirectional antennas that are usually found on the WAP package setandard. In addition, by selecting the appropriate antenna, we can control distance and direction signals to protect themselves from intruders. In addition, there are several settings that can be WAP signal strength and direction through the WAP config page.

10. Emit waves at different frequencies.
One way to hide from hackers who often use technologies 802.11b / g, which is more popular is to use 802.11a. Because 802.11a works on different frequencies (ie in the frequency of 5 GHz), NICs are designed to work on technology that is popular not be able to catch the signal

Wednesday, January 12, 2011

Through Install Driver Device Manager

Because there happens to be a friend to comment on blogs Computer technology is still puzzled how mengistall managar device drivers on your computer through the Windows operating system, then segaja I made with the aim to help the colleagues who are still a little bit confused.

Indeed, how install like this sometimes do typing in a driver file that we have not in the form of the setup file which is actually where I live to do the install just double click on filennya then lived in a next-next, but when getting a driver file that is not in the form of setup files which must be forced to use manual way through Device Manager.

For how to install hardware drivers through device manager simply by the way:

    1. Click Start on the Windows taskbar,
    2. Right-click My Computer, and select Properties, and System Properties window will appear,
    3. In the System Properties window, select the Hardware tab, then select again the button labeled Device Manager, and will appear again the Device Manager window

       4. In the Device Manager window, look for hardware that will install the driver, usually a driver that has not been detected by the Windows operating system there will be a Question mark (?) a yellow.

   5. So when my friend had found him, living in just right-click tuh drivers that have not detected a marked question (?) which is yellow, and then click Update Driver on the menu that appears from the right-click a buddy to do it and it will appear the windows Hardware Update Wizard ,
   6. In the Hardware Update Wizard window, select the option Install from a list or specific location (Advanced) and press the Next button, and select the option Include this anymore locations in the search. Do not forget on the Browse button, specify the location of the firstthe driver folder files will be installed .

    7. After determining the location of the folder that my friend had a driver, continue by clicking Next and wait until the process is complete. If this process runs smoothly, then the driver will be automatically carried out the installation.

Beware of viruses on your computer

The rapid development of technology and information easily available from various sources on the internet provides the opportunity for hackers to perform the action. One is the computer viruses they make are only with 1 virus alone they managed to deploy thousands or even millions of viruses around the world in a short time. This really gives the waspadaan to computer users, especially for Internet users to always be careful of the various viruses that can sneak some time in our computer either through storage media such as CD, Flash Disk, Diskette, etc. or through LAN, MAN, or WAN.

One virus that entered into the computer we can develop into hundreds or even thousands of viruses in a short time. This is certainly a critical issue that we face because of the entry of the virus would be fatal on a computer system and data on our computers. There are 2 types of viruses seen from the system, namely virus viruses visible and invisible. A very dangerous type of virus is invisible because we can not see the presence of the virus on our computers while the visible strain can be seen in the form of files with extensions based on the type of virus.

How to secure for our computers protected from viruses is to install an antivirus which can eradicate a lot of computer viruses. One of the antivirus software powerful enough to eradicate computer viruses is AVG or McAffe currently quite widely used by many people. Another safe way is always wary of storage media like flash, floppy disks, CDs, or any other and should be careful if you wanted to install a software that is downloaded on the internet because a lot of software that has been indicated against computer viruses.

If your computer is connected to the internet, always update your antivirus software at least once a month due to computer viruses every day is always increasing with increasing significantly.

Internal Computer Components

as I promised that on my writing this time I will explain about the internal components contained on a computer. For more specific internal components which I will explain that there is an internal component inside the CPU.

The main components that exist on the CPU is the processor which is the controlling center or brain of all internal & external components on the computer. The processor consists of the millions of microchips that are interconnected to form a special system that will be a series which we call the processor, the processor consists of various types that all have the same function. One of today's sophisticated processor is a Dual Core type, I'm not going to explain in more detail what it is dual core.

Other internal Kompoonen is the memory which is second only to the processor speed factor because all temporary memory when the computer is turned on will be stored in this memory so it can be concluded that working memory stores data only when computer is turned on and when the computer is turned off then all data in memory will be lost (to be temporary). Storage capacity on the memory consisted of 64 MB, 128 MB, 256 MB, 512 MB, 1 GB, and can be even greater if there are many memory slots on your computer.

The third component is the motherboard which is a medium internal components so that all components such as processors and memory to work.

The fourth component is the Video Card and Sound Card. Video card capable of displaying function for data that will be connected to a monitor while working to remove the sound card computer sound that will be connected to the speaker.

and many other internal components that can be installed on the computer ...

Internet as the field of business promotion

Use of the Internet turns out not only as a source of information, but also has many other benefits that may not have many people who know about it. On average, most people in Indonesia use the Internet just to find information and communicate by email or chat.
The Internet also has huge benefits as a business opportunity and business, as an example of you who have a book store to sell your books are on the internet, benefits could even get 2 even 10 times more than if you sell products offline because the product will you sell covers the whole world and can be done easily and quickly.
Marketing the product through the Internet also does not require a large capital even much smaller than if you build a store or building. Already many people are turning to sell their products via the Internet because they think the benefits will be far greater.
On the internet there are also many different types of investment opportunity that is promising. The average profit we earn by investing in a company through the internet is 25% - 40% every month with varying contract period. Investing through the Internet of course has a very big risk because any time a company where we can invest just went bankrupt.
By doing marketing or promotion through the internet, our products can be seen by tens of thousands or even hundreds of thousands of people each month who come from different cities and different countries.

Basic Introduction About Computer Networking

Based on the criteria, computer networks can be divided into four namely:
1. Based on the distribution of sources of information / data

- Centralized Network This network consists of client and server computer where the client computer that serves as an intermediary to access sources of information / data derived from a single computer server
- Distributed Network Is a mix of some centralized network so that there are several computer servers that are interconnected with the client to form a specific network system.

2. Based on geographic coverage can be divided into:
- Network LAN is the tissue that connects 2 computers or more in coverage such as laboratories, offices, and in a cafe.
- Network MAN Is a network that covers a large city and its local area. Examples of local telephone networks, cellular telephone systems, as well as relay some ISP Internet network.
- Network WAN Is a network with coverage throughout the world. Examples of PT network. Telkom, PT. Indosat, as well as networks such as GSM Cellular Satelindo, Telkomsel, and much more.

3. Based on the role and relationship of each computer in data processing.
- Client-Server Networks In this network there are 1 or more server computers and client computers. Computers that will be a computer server or a client computer and can be switched through the network software protocol. The client computer as an intermediary to be able to access data on a server computer while the computer server providing the information required by the client computer.
Networking-Peer-to-peer In this network there are no client computer and server computer because all computers can perform transmission and reception of information so that all computers function as clients as well as the server.

4. Based on data transmission media
- Wired Network (Wired Network) In this network, to connect one computer to another computer takes the form of cable connecting the network. Network cable to function within sends information in the form of electrical signals between the network computer.
- Wireless Network (Wireless Network) Is a network with medium in the form of electromagnetic waves. In this network is not required cable to connect between computers because it uses electromagnetic waves which will transmit signals between a computer information network.

Working Principle of Computer Network Systems

Electrical signal or signals in the form of electromagnetic waves propagating on a computer network / radiate with the working principles of computer networking systems. In order for a network to exchange information data, we need a device called a modem (modulator demodulator) that serves to convert analog signals into digital signals and vice versa.

There are 4 main components found on a network, the sender (sender information data), protocols (which encode and decode the data information), transmission media (medium data transfer), and receiver (receiver data information).

The principle works, first sender sends a signal to the receiver via the protocol information that changed the encoded digital signals into analog signals and signal transmission through the media and via a second protocol on the decoded back into digital signals before entry into the receiver.

The working principle above can be in the analogy when the Japanese and British people were chatting over the internet. When the Japanese people to type a message in Japanese it will be modified in advance by the protocol into english english so people can receive messages in English and vice versa when the British reply to a Japanese person is the english message will be modified by the protocol advance into the Japanese language prior to the Japanese people. So in this case protocol translator can be termed as data information.